This Day, July 4, In Jewish History by Mitchell A and Deb Levin Z’L – All #ourCOG News (2024)

July 4

925: Moslemsraided Oria as part of their attacks on Italy. Ten rabbinical leaders werekilled and many others were taken into captivity, including 12 year oldShabbetai Donnolo, who later achieved fame as a physician

1187: Guy deLusignan (King of Jerusalem) force-marched his troops through the dry, hotGalilee against the advice of Raymond III of Tripoli and others. At a siteknown as the Horns of Hittim near Lake Tiberius, the Moslems defeated him andhis Crusader army. The Moslems were led by the legendary Saladin. This defeatlead to a string of Crusader defeats that culminated in the loss of Jerusalemin October. These losses would result in the Third Crusade, led by Richard theLionhearted, which would fail to restore the gains of the Christians. Therewould be several more Crusades, none of which would prove any more successful.In the end, the Christians would be forced into retreat as Moslem rulers wouldextend their rule into the across a large swath of Europe. Those who contend thatthe today’s clashes between the West and certain groups of Moslems and Arabsare rooted in the creation of the state of Israel would do well to read somehistory. Obviously, today’s conflicts pre-date modern Zionism. Lest we losetrack of the events of the eleventh and twelfth century, the Crusades were nota good period for the Jews

1348: PopeClement VI confirms the papal bull Sicut Judaeis("and thus to theJews," better known as the "Constitution for the Jews"), issuedin 1120 by Pope Calixtus II. (As reported by Austin Cline)

1349(9thof Tammuz, 5109): Based on “evidence furnished by Judah’s testament andepitaphs” 79 year old German Talmudist Judah Ben Asher, the son of RabbenuAsher and the brother of Joseph Ben Asher, who served as the rabbi at Toledo,Spain passed away.

1453:Forty-one Jews were burned at the stake in Breslau, Germany. The remainder ofthe Jewish population was expelled

1546:Birthdate of Murad III, future Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. During his reign“the Jewish community was shaken by a decree ordering the killing of Jews,which resulted from the appearance of men and women in the streets in richclothing and jewels. As a result of the intervention of the physician SolomonAshkenazi at court, the decree was mitigated, but Jews were forbidden to wearsuch apparel. Subsequently, the rabbis of Istanbul and the community leadersreached an agreement that ‘the women and the girls shall not go out ingrandiose apparel, golden jewelry, and precious stones.’” (As reported by theJewish Virtual Library)

During hisreign Esther Chiera “was executed along with one of her sons by the SultanMurad III's cavalry. Esther, the wife of a Jewish merchant, was known as aChiera or Kiera, the title given to the women in charge of all relations(including commercial) between the wives in the sultan's royal harem and theoutside world. Esther was extremely influential with Safiyeh, the favorite wifeof the Sultan. Jealousy on the part of other ministers and the desire of theSultan for her assets led to their arrest (officially for interfering in amilitary appointment) and execution, with all their possessions and propertygoing to the Sultan.”

1569: The Kingof Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania, Sigismund II Augustus finally signthe document of union between Poland and Lithuania, creating new country knownas Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Commonwealth was a haven for Jews andthe center of Ashkenazi Jewry. The Jews enjoyed a significant degree ofautonomy under the authority of Chief Rabbi of their own selection. Allof this would come to an end with the Cossack uprising in the 17thcentury.

1584: Anexpedition dispatched by Sir Walter Raleigh to explore the area of the AtlantaCoast around Roanoke Island that probably included Joachim Gans, which made“Gans the first recorded Jew in Colonial America” arrived at Roanoke Islandtoday

1632: Severalsecret Jews in Spain were sentenced at an auto-de-fe for holding Jewishservices.They practiced in a house on a street known as Calle delas Infantas.The house was later destroyed on orders of theInquisition and a Capuchin monastery was built on the site.

1632: InMadrid, “the first auto was held for Judaizers in celebration of the deliveryof Elizabeth of Bourbon.”

1632(15thof Tammuz, 5392): Isabel Nuñez Alvarez, of Viseu in Portugal, wife of MiguelRodriguez of Madrid, the owner of a synagogue, situated on the street "delas Infantes" in Madrid died a martyr's death in the flames today. TheInquisition ordered the synagogue to be torn down, and upon its site a Capuchinmonastery was subsequently erected

1636: City ofProvidence, Rhode Island was created under the leadership of Roger Williams.The first Jew did not settle permanently in the city until 1838 when a Dutchmerchant named Solomon Pareira settled there. In 1849, he founded a cemeterywhich was the city’s first Jewish institution

1642: Marie deMédicis, the Italian born Queen consort of France passed away. Marie ignoredthe fact that Jews had been banned from France since she employed ElijahMontalto, a Portuguese Marrano who returned to the faith of his fathers, as herpersonal physician. His medical care cannot be blamed for her demisesince had passed away in 1616.

1672: Today, Williamof Orange, who received a loan of two million guilders from Francisco LopesSuasso, second Baron d'Avernas le Gras “also known within the Sephardic Jewishcommunity as Abraham Israel Suasso” to support his invasion England to claimthe throne held by King James II, began his reign as Stadtholder of Holland,Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, and Overijssel.

1753: Abrahamde Fonseca de Mattos graduated from Leyden University with a degree inmedicine.

1772(3rdof Tammuz, 5532): Parashat Korach read as citizens of the UK and the 13colonies deal with the Credit Crisis of 1772.

1776(17thof Tammuz): Celebration of Independence Day. A copy was sent to Amsterdam viathe small Dutch Caribbean Island of St. Eustatius. The Declaration wasintercepted by the British at sea. An accompanying letter with the Declarationof Independence was also intercepted and sent to London as being a secret codeabout the document that needed to be deciphered - the letter was written inYiddish. In one of those strange twist of fate, when British Admiral SirGeorge Rodney conquered the island which was a major source of supply for theAmericans in 1871, he singled out the Jews for the kind of harsh treatmentassociated with anti-Semites. The treatment was so out of bounds, thatwhen Edmund Burke, no friend of the Jews hear about it he said, "IfBritons were so injured, Britons have armies and laws to fly to for theprotection and justice. But the Jews have no such power and no such friend todepend upon. Humanity then must become their protector." (As described byLouis Arthur Norton)

TheDeclaration of Independence in the United States of America provided the basisfor religious tolerance in most other countries. During the Revolutionary warthere were fewer than 2,500 Jews in total within the colonies. More than sixhundred fought in the war including the great grandfather of Supreme CourtJustice Cardozo. One company in South Carolina had so many Jews that it wascalled the Jews’ company. In 1776, July 4 corresponded to the 17thof Tammuz, which is a fast day on the Jewish calendar tied to the eventsleading up to the destruction of the Temple.

1776: Amongthe Jews serving with Continental Army today is Francis Salvador who had justrejoined his comrades on the South Carolina frontier after having ridden thirtymiles on July 1 to sound the alarm that the Cherokees have been attacking thelocal settlements “massacring and scalping the colonial inhabitants.

1785: InBaltimore, MD, Lean Nathan and Jacob Naphtali Hart who were married in 1778gave birth to David Hart.

1787: InCamden, SC, Samuel Levy and Sarah Moses Levy, the daughter of Henry andElizabeth Moses gave birth to South Carolina lawyer and state legislatorChapman Levy, the Mississippi planter who was predeceased by both of his wives– Flora and Rosina Levy -- who rose tothe rank of Colonel during the War of 1812/

1788: The Jewsof Philadelphia celebrate in a Federal Parade after hearing that theConstitution was adopted by a majority of the states. The newspaper read,"The rabbi of the Jews, locked in arms of two ministers of the gospel, wasa most delightful sight."

1788:Benjamin Franklin was too sick and weak to get out of bed, but the IndependenceDay parade in Philadelphia marched right under his window. And, as Franklinhimself had directed, ‘the clergy of different Christian denominations, withthe rabbi of the Jews, walked arm in arm.’

1788:Today, “in a celebration of Pennsylvania 's ratification of the U.S.Constitution, Jacob Raphael Cohen, the Hazan of Mikveh Israel walked arm-in-armwith two ministers, one of whom was Reverend William White of Christ Church ,dean of the clergy of Philadelphia ."

1794:Catherine II of Russia restricted the area where Jews were permitted to trade.

1802:The U.S. Military Academy opens its doors at West Point, N.Y. Accordingto Daniel Isaac Helmer, Cadet Sergeant, United States Military Academy--WestPoint and the Hillel president at the United States Military Academy the Jewishpeople have been associated with the Academy since its opening. The firstgraduating class consisted of two cadets one of whom was a Jew named SimonLevy. In the 1980s, the West Point Jewish Chapel, a beautiful $10million facility, was opened. In 2002, in honor of 200 years of Jewish historyat the Military Academy, the Jewish Chapel began building a commemorative wallto record and recognize all of the Jewish graduates of West Point. At that timethere were about 70 Jews at the Military Academy out of a student population ofapproximately 4,000. An increasingly active Jewish population has begun tosponsor numerous Jewish activities. Jewish students from other schools havevisited West Point for events including "Weekend of the JewishWarrior" and a Hanukkah party. The Military Academy also has a West PointJewish Chapel Choir, which has performed all over the East Coast.

1807:Birthdate of Giuseppe Garibaldi one of a triumvirate of Italian patriots whofreed the peninsula from foreign rule and created the modern nation ofItaly. Garibaldi was a revolutionary and a guerilla fighter in the truesense of the terms. His belief in equality extended to religion where hemade no distinction between the rights of Christians and the rights ofJews. Numerous Jews served in his military unit known as “the Thousands”which liberated southern Italy and Sicily.

1809: Today inaccordance with newly adopted law, Samuel Marx Levi, the son of Rabbi SamuelMarx Levi became Samuel Marx when he adopted “the family name Marx for himselfand his siblings.

1817:Birthdate of Charleston, SC native Mary Levy Florance, the wife of HenryFlorance who lived in New Orlean where she had three children – Sarah, Henryand Alfred.

1819: InCharleston, SC, David and Sarah Carvalho gave birth to Julia Carvalho.

1820: Drivenby the need for money, one day before his 56th birthday, Jewishboxer Daniel Mendoza, who “had not fought in 14 years” “fought his last boutday today which he lost after 12 rounds.

1821: AaronCohen married Sophia Minden at the Great Synagogue.

1822:Birthdate of Boston native Alfred T. Jones, the resident of Philadelphia whowas the secretary of the first Jewish Publications Society organized in 1845and printer who in 1875 created “the Jewish Record, a newspaper which remainedin existence until 1886.

1825: Aprivileged obtained by the Jews of Suriname from Queen Anne of England in the17th century stipulating that Jews “should be exempt fromprosecutions during their high festivals” was abolished today “by Royal decree.”

1826: MenoBerg who was one of the few career Jewish officers in the Prussian Army waspromoted to the rank of first lieutenant while teaching at the United Artilleryand Engineering School.

1833: InPhiladelphia, PA, “Joseph M. and Clara Ulman Asch” gave birth to their secondson and Jefferson Medical College trained physician Joseph Morris Asch whoserved with the Union Army during the Civil War after which he pursued a careeras a laryngologist in New York City.

1834: InLondon, David Davis and his wife gave birth New York and Montreal tobaccomerchant Samuel Davis, the husband of Minnie Falk who had been a member of bothMontreal’s Spanish and Portuguese Congregation and one of the founders NewYork’s Temple Emanu-El.

1835:Birthdate of Moritz Benedikt, the native of Eisenstadt who served with theAustrian Army and became a leading Austro-Hungarian neurologist.

1839: InLondon, Maurice Solomon, the Edmonton, London born “son of Moshe EliezerLieberman Solomon and Betsy (Elizabeth) Solomon and his wife Louisa Solomon”gave birth to Joseph Maurice Solomon “the husband of Adeline Solomon and KatieSolomon and father of Ethel Solomon; Charles Sampson Solomon; Lawrence Solomon;Maurice Solomon; Humphrey Joseph Solomon; Thomas Henry Solomon; Edmund JohnSolomon and William Lewis Solomon.”

1840: Thirty-four-year-oldMoritz Moses Jacob von Goldschmidt and Anna Netti von Goldschmidt gave birth toHermann (Ritter) von Goldschmidt

1840: InLondon, Henry Zvi Defries, the “son of Daniel (Gedalia) Defries and CharlotteDefries” and his wife Mary Miriam Defries gave birth to John Defries, the “husbandof Julia Defries and father of Mary Isaacs; Amelia Lyons; Rachel Abrahams;Kitty Defries; Fanny Mendoza; Sarah Emanuel; Golda (Gertie) Hanreck; HenryDefries; Jane Defries; Marie Nickelsberg; Mrs. Isaacs; Julia Isaacs and Mrs.Brandon Defries.

Husband ofElizabeth Defries and Mary Miriam Defries

1841: Londonnative Benjamin Jacobs was buried today at the Brady Street Jewish Cemetery.

1842(26thof Tammuz, 5602): Sixty-two-year-old Rabbi Nahum Trebitsch, the son of SeligTrebitsch while on a trip to Carslbad.

1842: In NewYork City, Rachel Hearst and merchant Herman Londoner who in 1856 moved hisbusiness to Dubuque, IA gave birth to wholesale grocer Wolf Londoner theRepublican Mayor of Denver who was forced to leave office because of electionirregularities.

1842:Birthdate of Hermann Cohen, a German-Jewish philosopher, one of the founders ofthe Marburg School of Neo-Kantianism, and he is often held to be "probablythe most important Jewish philosopher of the nineteenth century"

1843: InCincinnati, OH, Wolf and Hannah Kahn Trost gave birth to Civil War veteranJacob Trost and husband of CarrieSolomon Trost with whom he had two children – Belle and Jeanette.

1845: In NewYork, Joseph Phillips, the son of Jonas Phillips and Rebecca Mendez Machado andhis wife Rachel Nunez Phillips gave birth Ellen Cardozo Phillips, the sister ofIsaac Cardoza Phillips.

1845: TheEgyptian Revival Hobart Synagogue was consecrated in Hobart a city on theAustralian island state of Tasmania.

1849:Sigismund Schloss married Rebecca Mocatta at the West London Synagogue.

1849:Birthdate of József Bánóczi, the native of Szt. Gál, Veszprém, Hungary, a“privat-docent of philosophy at the University of Hungary” and a “professor atthe Budapest Jewish Theological Seminary” who “at the insistence of Dr. Beck,the Bucharest rabbi, Bánóczi and Prof. Wilhelm Bacher took the necessary stepsto save from certain ruin the congregation and schools of the sect of SzeklerSabbatarians in Transylvania.”

1849: InRhenish Palatinate, Germany Jacob Mohr and Mena Weil gave birth to MichaelMohr, the husband of Mena Dreyfus who settled in Montgomery, Al where he wasactive in B’nai B’rith and served as President, vice president and trustee ofKahl Montgomery.

1850: InGermany Ascher Freudenthaler and Hennele (Hanchen) Haber gave birth to Chicagobusinessman Joseph Freudenthal, the husband of Jennie Liebenstein with whom hehad three children – Carrie, George and Leo.

1857:Birthdate of Joseph Pennell the American artist and photographer who wasarrested and deported from Russia because he sketched and photographed thewretched conditions under which the Jews of Kiev were living when hevisitedthere in 1891 which he described in The Jew At Home:Impressions of a Summer and Autumn Spent With Him.

1858: Solomonand “Rachel Lubin Weinstock” gave birth to Fanny Weinstock who became FannyBonheim when she married Albert Bonnheim with whom she had one son, Joseph.

1860: InCincinnati, OH, Leopold Levy and his gave birth to Solomon W. Levi, the husbandof Anna Adler and vice-president of the National Jewish Hospital forConsumptives in Denver, CO.

1861:Philadelphian Joseph Davidson, who would be killed at the Battle ofChancellorsville in 1863, began his service as a Private in Company I of the 28thRegiment

1863(17thof Tammuz, 5623): Parashat Balak

1863(17thof Tammuz, 5623): In one of those quirks of the calendar, the 87thIndependence Day fall on the same day on both the Secular and the Jewishcalendars.

1863(17thof Tammuz, 5623): Because it is Shabbat the Tzom Tammuz is not observed todaysince it is a day of national celebration due to the victories atGettysburg and Vicksburg which for some makes it seem to be a foretaste of theMessianic Era when fast days will become feast days.

1863:Birthdate of Solomon Lipschütz who “was chess champion of the United Statesfrom 1889 to 1890 and 1891 to 1894.

1863:"Sarah, the Hebrew; or, the Dream of Destiny," will be one of theattractions at Barnum's Museum during its Independence Day Celebration.

1863: In oneof the climactic moments of the Civil War, Confederate forces surrenderVicksburg to Union forces under the command of General U.S. Grant. The victoryis both a major tactical and strategic success since it split the Confederacyin half and gave control of the Mississippi River back to the Union. Whilethere were Jewish soldiers fighting on both sides, the real significance isthat the victory helped ensure that the United States of America would continueto exist offering Jews a place of refuge from European anti-Semitism. Thevictory would also be a major stepping stone in the career of General Grantwhich would eventually lead him to victory over Lee and the Presidency.Despite the unfortunate issuing of Order #11, Grant was not an anti-Semite ascan be seen from the fact that Jews voted for him for President, his friendshipwith Joseph Seligman who refused Grant’s request to serve in his cabinet, hismeeting with Rabbi Hayim Tzvi Sneersohn, a great-grandson of Rabbi Shneur Zalmanof Liadi, the "Alter Rebbe" of Chabad Hasidim and his attendance atthe dedication of Adas Israel’s newly built house of worship.

1863: Amongthe Jews serving at Vicksburg were Private David Orbansky of the 58thOhio Infantry and Colonel Marcus M. Spiegel of the 120th OhioInfantry. A native of Lautenburg, Prussia, Orbansky would receive aCongressional Medal of Honor for his bravery at Shiloh and Vicksburg. Spiegelwould die before he could be promoted to the rank of Brigadier of General “forhis bravery at Vicksburg and Snaggy Point.”

1863: GeneralFrederick Charles Salomon, a native of Prussia who had settled in Wisconsin,led the 1st Brigade of the Army of the Tennessee against the Rebelsat the Battle of Helena, Arkansas.

1863: InPhiladelphia, as the possibility of a Rebel victory seemed possible RabbiSabato Morais, “an avid abolitionist,” supporter of Abraham Lincoln and loyalUnionist delivered a sermon today at Mikveh Israel in which he said, “the moreintently I gaze upon the bright past, the darker does the present appear to myvision”

1867(1stof Tammuz, 5627): Rosch Chodesh Tammuz

1867(1stof Tammuz, 5627): Grace Judah, the daughter of Hillel Judah who married HenryMarkx after having been married to Judah Myers passed away today.

1869: InLeipzig, the Synod attended by Elie-Aristide Astruc, the Chief Rabbi of Belgiumcame to an end today.

1870: InSheffield, England, Bluma Wollman and Marks Lissman gave birth Rabbi EdwardLIssman, the husband of Hannah Meyers, who in 1889 came to the United Stateswhere he founded the Hebrew Tabernacle in 1904, served as City Chaplain for theStreet Cleaning Department of Manhattan and founded the Riverside Synagogue.

1873:Birthdate of dietician Frances Stern. The Frances Stern Nutrition Center a partof Tufts-New England Medical Center was named in her honor.

1873: InWheeling, West Virgina, Meyer David Morris and Golderroscha Rose Meyer gavebirth to Dora Dora Shindeling, the ”wife of Moses Shindeling and mother ofLibby Shinedling; Isidore Jocelyn Or Joe Shinedling; Janie Libby Shinedling;Abraham Isaac Shindeling; Julian Mark Shinedling; Helen Ray Genis; ArchieEdward Shinedling; Reba London and Elizabeth Shinedling.

1873: In theUK, Rabbi A.E. Gordon and his wife gave birth to H.H. Gordon, the graduate ofLondon University and Cambridge, president of the Cambridge Hebrew Congregationand honorary secretary of the Jews’ Temporary Shelter who served “four years onthe staff of the East Indian Railway and served as a member of the StepenyBorough Council.

1874:Birthdateof Aaron Scheinker, the husband of Sarah Kravitz Scheinker with whom he hadthree children – Ida, Joseph and Henry – who lived in Albany, NY and Schenectady,NY.

1876: InRovno, Russia, Samuel and Mary Simon gave birth to Sophie Irene Simon who movedto McKeesport, PA, at the age of six and gained fame as Sophie Simon Loeb, the wife ofAnselm Loeb who was known for her career as a journalist and advocate for social welfarereform.

1877:Birthdate of Manchester, England native Jacob Silverblatt who in 1897 came tothe United States where he was became a “merchant in Wilkes-Barre” PA whilebeing an active member of B’nai B’rith

1880: RabbiAdolph Huebsch of Temple Ahavath Chesed officiated at the funeral of Joseph I.Stein who had served as Assemblyman of the 12th District. Acrowd of 2,000 spilled out from the home on East 52nd Street and onehundred coaches were needed to carry all of those who went to thecemetery. Stein was a victim of last month’s Seawanhaka ship disaster.

1880: In theUnited States, Natha and Anna Rogen gave birth Harry Rogen, the husband ofHattie Goldberg and the brother and Louis and Selig Rogen with whom he operatesRogen Brothers and Company at 653-655 onBroadway in New York City which is proof “strict observance of the JewishSabbath is no way a handicap to business success…”

1880: In“Berischoff, Russia,” “Charles and Dorothy (Vigdrochik) Benenson gave birth toBenjamin Benenson the husband of Frances Shapiro who in 1899 arrived in NewYork City where he went from being a carpenter, to being a general contractorto being a bank vice president while joining serving as board member for theShield of Abraham, the Beth Abraham Home for Incurables and the MontefioreHospital

1880:Birthdate of New York native Jacob Paul “Twister” Steinberg one of Teddy’sRoosevelt’s Rough Riders who became one of the first, if not the first Jewishprofessional football player.

1880: “TheSoldiers of Morocco” published today described the great strides made inturning the Moroccan Army into an effective military unit. Credit forthis accomplishment goes to an English soldier known as Kaid Maclean (Sir HarryAubrey de MacLean). Kaid could not have accomplished his mission if ithad not been for a unnamed Jew. Kaid did not speak Arabic and the troopsdid not understand English so Kaid “had to give his instructions through aJewish interpreter” who spoke both language but who nothing about militarydrill.

1881:Birthdate of Dov Ber Borochov the Ukrainian born proponent of the labor Zionistmovement who was one of the founders of the Poale Zion.

1881: InLithuania, Harris Abelow and his wife gave birth to Samuel Abelow, the husbandof Jeanette Abelow who settled in New York.

1881: “JewishLadies Whipped” published today described the whippings of Jewish men, womenand children, including “ladies of good position” who received 300 strokes, atSmjela, a small town near Kiev. The attacks, which had been ordered by anunnamed Colonel, ended when the governor of Kiev arrived.

1881: It wasreported today that “in some Russian districts, the peasants have offered topay for the damage done to the property of the Jews” including one districtwhere 800 rubles have been deposited for that purpose.

1882:Birthdate of Benjamin Gruskin, the Lithuanian born son of Leon Gruskin and agraduate of the University of Pittsburgh and Rush Medical School who was “aleader in experimental medicine” “credited with several medical discoveries”including the discovery of the therapeutic value of chlorophyll, blood andskins tests for cancer, a test for inactive tuberculosis and a pregnancy test”passed away today in a hospital in Durham, NC after which he was buried at theBeth Shalom Cemetery in Pittsburgh, PA.

1882:Patrolman Edgar S. Slauson defended himself against accusations that he hadoverreacted when dealing with a mob that had attacked workers who working inplace of the striking freight handlers. The replacement workers included largenumbers of recently arrived Jewish immigrants from Russia who did not knowabout the strike. He admitted having to use his club on more than one of theattackers but he had little choice since he was facing a throng of more than2,000.

1882: It wasreported today that a mass meeting held to support the strike by the freighthandlers in New York cheers greeted the announcement that 150 Russian Jews whohad recently arrived in the United States and gone to work at the Erie Railwaypier refused to do any more work once they had heard about the strike.

1883: In SanFrancisco, CA, Hannah Cohen and Max Goldberg, “a San Francisco police and fire commissioner”gave birth to Reuben Garrett Lucius Goldberg, “better known as Rube Goldberg anAmerican Pulitzer Prize winning cartoonist, sculptor, author, engineer, andinventor the husband of Irma Seman and the father two sons – Thomas and George –whom he insisted should “change their surname because of antisemitic sentimenttoward him stemming from the political nature of his cartoons” who entertainedseveral generations with his drawings of simple activities that were turnedinto multi-step complex functions and whose name became synonymous withimprovised temporary solutions to problems of major and minor magnitude.

1883: It wasreported today that “The Art Magazine for July” published by Cassell and Cofeatures an article about the Russian sculptor, Mark Antokolsky. Born inWilno, this poor Jewish boy somehow managed to become a student at the ImperialAcademy in St. Petersburg. His first work “Jew Tailor” was created inwood because Antokolsky could not afford marble. His career took off in1870 when the Czar saw his statute “Ivan the Terrible.”

1884: In Grodno “Abram and Anna (Muniches)Abrahams gave birth to “calligrapher, designer and artist Joseph B. Abrahams,the husband of “the former Mrs. Lillian Manning” whose creations included “thebronze doors of Temple Emanu-El” in New Yorkand “the interior décor forthe Ziegfeld Follies” and whose communal efforts included serving as the “headof the Overseas Depart of the Jewish Welfare Board” and “Secretary of theJewish Theological Seminary” starting in 1902.

1884: Two daysafter he drowned, Isidore Joseph, the son of Lewis and Bluma Joseph was buriedtoday at the Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemetery.

1884: It wasreported from Odessa that there has been “rapid increase” in the emigration ofJews from southern Russia, to the United States.

1885: Birthdateof Polish native and Pennsylvania businessman Samuel Eugene Bamer, the husbandof Edna Bramer and Beatrice Bramer, the father of Cecile Louise Bramer andfather-in-law of Rabbi Eugene Mihaly who operated a jewelry store in Braddock,PA before assuming the presidency of Copperweld Steel Company in 1929.

1885(21stof Tammuz, 5645): Parashat Pinchas

1885: AtTemple Beth-El, Rabbi Kaufmann Kohler’s Shabbat sermon included “his lastdiscourse in the series in reference to sustaining the principles of Reform”and the relationship of “Independence Day to the Jews” of the United States.

1885: Thecongregants of Ahavath Chesed filled the sanctuary to hear the Shabbat sermonRabbi Alexander Kohut in which he defended the principles of Orthodoxy whilecalling for unity among the Jewish people.

1886: “Jews ToBe Dismissed” published today relied on information from the St. PetersburgDispatch and the London Daily News to described the orders given by theMinister of Justice to dismiss all Jewish secretaries and clerks employedby the examining magistrates.

1886: David J.Dean delivered an address entitled “The Golden Rule In Political Government”during which he said that “race prejudice” had presented the greatest hurdlefor people to overcome in their quest for effective government. The follyof this attitude could be seen in that “for centuries the Hebrew” had been “anobject of infamy and denunciation” but now Beaconsfield governed ‘the empire onwhich the sun never sets’ i.e. Great Britain. [Despite his conversion,Disraeli/Beaconsfield was regarded as a Jew; although the reference was usuallya derogatory one used by his political opponents.]

1886: In NewYork City, Pera P. Lichtman and Isaac Goro gave birth to Cornell Universitygraduate and Long Island College Hospital and University of Heidelberg trainedmedical doctor Murray Burnes Gordon, the husband of Harriet Engel and startingin 1921 the attending pediatrist at the United Zion Hospital where he becamepresident o the Medical Staff om 1924.

1887: In his69th year, Jonas Heller, a long serving member of the Board ofDirectors of the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews passed away today.

1887: InWoodville, Mississippi, Emily Harris and Morris Rothschild gave birth toColumbia trained medical doctor and New York resident Marcus AdolphusRothschild the husband of Edna E. Liebman and U.S. Marine Corps Major who was amember of the executive committee of the Health Service for Jews, and TempleBeth-El.

1888:Birthdate of Kiev native Ezra Korman “a poet, editor, and translator whomigrated to Detroit from Kiev in 1923” where he lived until his death in 1959.

1888: JacobLissauer is reported to be contesting the will of his late wife, Yetta.Her estate was worth $5,000. The will makes bequests for the benefit of theHebrew Home for the Aged and Infirm and the Hebrew Orphan Asylum, but livesnothing to the husband. He contends that the Yetta’s cousin, who drew upthe will never let her read the instrument so she signed it without knowingthis.

1889: “A HomeFor Hebrew Societies” published today described plans for the construction of abuilding that will be home to the Hebrew Free School Association, the YoungMen’s Hebrew Association and the Aquila Free Library located in the Tenth Ward.The facility will contain classrooms, manual training facilities and “a hallcapable of holding 800” people.

1889 Birthdateof Joseph Ruttenberg, the Russian born American photojournalist who became an award-winningcinematographer who began in the silent film era and made the successfultransition to talkies.

1890: It wasreported today that Dr. Clifton Levy will deliver the sermon at Temple Gates ofHope on Shabbat.

1890: BarneyRosenberg, who is among the group of striking tailors and cloakmakers most ofwhom are Russian and Polish Jews,was being treated at Gouverneur Hospitalfor injuries he received from a policeman who broke up an attack that tookplace on scabs yesterday.

1890: HenrySimon, Welf Heiman, Harris Dienerstadt, Hyman Schmlovitz, Aaron Michael Knovic,Isidor Kaufman, Jospeh Hyman are in police custody for their role in attackingstrike breakers at two clothing manufacturers who have locked the immigrantJewish tailors and cloakmakers.

1891: The SS PIckhuban which had left Antwerpwith a large party of Jews who had been expelled from Russia came upon theburning wreck of the Octavia whose crew must have left in lifeboats since theywere nowhere to be seen.

1891: Twenty-six-year-oldMax Wilhelm Zach, the Ukrainian born son of Heinrich and Julia Zach andconductor of the St. Louis Symphony Orchestra married “Blache Going” today inBoston after which “they had three children – Leon, Phillip and Elanor.”

1891: A deedwas recorded today in Marlborough, Hartford County, CT “transferring a sizabletract of land in that town near Marlborough mills on which buildings are to beerected” for use by “poor Jews who are now being driven out of countries inEurope.”

1892: At theirmeeting today, the Board of Managers of the Baltimore Congregation “reportedthat they thought it was inexpedient at present to abolish the old custom ofthe men wearing their hats during services.”

1892: InBeloit, KS, Charles B. Epstein and Minnie Newman gave birth to Esther Epsteinthe wife of Arthur Marowitz and the mother of Harley Marowitz who was anofficer in the National Council of Jewish Women.

1892: As partof Independence Day celebrations in New York, American flags flew in allsections of the city including those “streets where all of the signs arewritten in Hebrew characters.” (The letters may have been “Hebrew” but thelanguage may have been Yiddish”

1892:Hostilities begin between France the African Kingdom of Dahomey in what wascalled the Second Franco-Dahomean War in which Andre Cremeiu-Foa who had been avictim of attacks by French anti-Semites including Edouard Drumont, served withsuch distinction that he was cited in the orders for the day.

1893: “Pupilsof the Hirsch Schools” published today described the method by which theseinstitutions prepare the children of Jewish immigrants from Russia and Romaniafor success in public school. In the past, these children had stayed awayfrom school because they did not speak English and did understand Americancustoms. In a three-month course that begins almost as soon as theyoungsters get off of the boat, the Hirsch Schools teach them English andcultivate their understanding of “freedom of thought and action, together withrespect for law” which are the hallmark of the American experience.

1894: As partof their Independence Day Celebration the young men at the Hebrew Orphan Asylumwere formed into two companies each with a brass band of 30 pieces so thatparade at the facility on Amsterdam Avenue. Following the parade, all ofthe youngsters were treated to cake and ice cream followed by a fireworks show.

1894: As partof the Independence Day celebration, “the cadets of the Hebrew Institute wentinto camp near St. George, S.I. They then conducted a drill in thepresence of dignitaries including Isidor Straus and Alfred Hochstader

1894: Becauseof the Independence Day holiday, the regularly scheduled lecture on the “Careof Feeding of Infants and Children During the Warm Weather” will not take placeat the Hebrew Institute.

1895: “In theHenry Street Settlement on the Lower East Side of Manhattan, Romanian Jewishimmigrant Morris Keiser, “the owner of a secondhand bookstore: and his wifeSofie gave birth to Isidor Keiser, the brother of screenwriter Arthur Caesar,who gained famed as award winning songwriter Irving Caeser who was responsiblefor such all-time hits as “Sewanee” and “Tea for Two.”

1895: GovernorLevi P. Morton is considering the tenth application for a pardon submitted onbehalf of Phillip Kiven who is serving a six year term in Sing Sing Prisonafter having been convicted, along with is wife of stealing $250 from twoPolish Jews who were staying at their resort. In a strange twist of events,Kiven claims that he is the victim of a police persecution.

1895: It wasreported that the late Lewis Levy has left his estate in a trust for thebenefit of his wife Mary and his sister Julia. Upon their death theresidue will be used for bequests to several charities including the HebrewBenevolent and Orphan Asylum Society, Mount Sinai Hospital, the Home for Agedand Infirm Hebrews , the Montefiore Home for Chronic Invalids and the HebrewTechnical Institute.

1896: “Doom ofthe Tombs” published today provided a recap of those hung at the old New YorkCity jail including three men hung for the murder of Abraham Weisberg, a Jewishpeddler.

1896:Birthdate of New York native John Alexander, the WW I veteran who was guidedduring his career at Rutgers by theatrical legend Paul Robeson and who madefootball history in 1922 when as a member of the Milwaukee Badgers played theposition of “outside linebacker” much tothe surprise of the Chicago Cardinals

1897:In Philadelphia, Jacob Pavlovich Adler and his third wife, Sara Adler gavebirth to actress Julia Adler who “played Jessica to her father’s Shylock” and“Bessie Berger in Clifford Odets’s ‘Awake and Sing!’”

1897:Jews came from all over the state to witness the laying of the cornerstone inElizabeth, NJ,of their new Educational Institute and Library at thecorner of Fourth and Streets.

1898: Duringthe Spanish American War, Captain Albert W. Lilienthal began serving as anadjustant with the 7th U.S. Volunteer Infantry.

1898: Thefirst convention of the Federation of American Zionists opened at the B'naiZion Club on Henry Street in New York's lower East Side. One hundreddelegates, 20 from outside of New York, attended the convention which electedRabbi Guvstav Gottheil to serve as President.

1900: It wasreported today that The Central Realty Bond and Trust Company whose presidentis Henry Morgenthau “showed a total surplus and undivided profits of $721, 871as of June 30.”

1900: In Vilna Esther and Morris Jehiel Shubow gavebirth to pianist Rachel Shubow, the “sister of Dr. Abraham S. Shubow; JacobShubow; Rabbi Joseph Shalom Shubow and Leo Shubow who in 1907 came to theUnited States where she studied at the New England Conservatory of Music and who in 1933 came back from Germany after four years to studythere and warned about the threat to Jews posed by the Hitler regime.

1900:Birthdate of Brooklyn native Jacob Jacques Landesberg, the Columbia trainedOphthalmologist and husband of Isabelle Goldberg Landesberg both of whom areburied together at the Mount Hebron Cemetery in Flushing, NY.

1901(17thof Tammuz, 5661): New Yorker Jacob F. Cullman passed away in Wuerzburg and left$15,000 to Mt. Sinai Hospital and $10,000 to both the Hebrew Benevolent andOrphan Asylum and the Montefiore Home for Chronic Invalids.

1901: InBrooklyn Isidor and Malka Halpern Goldstein gave birth to Samuel Goldstein whogained fame as novelist and screenwriter Samuel Guy Endore who also used thenamed “Harry Relis.”

1902: Herzlhad his first meeting with Nathaniel Mayer Rothschild in London.

1902: TheSultan asks Herzl top come to Constantinople immediately.

1902:Birthdate of Meier Suchowlański the native of Grodno who gained fame or infamyas gangster Myer Lansky.

1902: InMulhouse, Constance Kenendel Lang and Baruch Kahn gave birth to Felix Kahn

1902: Dr.Joseph Heller who had served as surgeon “to a battalion of the 24thU.S. Infantry” and had earned a Silver Star for his service during the Battleof Naguilan was in the Philippines “when the civil government was established”today.

1903: TheSisters of Zion, which had been organized at Detroit in December of 1902 hosted“their first annual ice cream festival” this evening at Winter’s Teutonic Hall.

1903:Birthdate of New Yorker Isabelle Goldberg Landesberg, who was born two days tothe day after the birth of her husband, Dr. Jacques Landesberg.

1903(9th ofTammuz, 5663) Albert F. Hochstadyer who had been a member of the firm ofNewburger and Hochstadter Brothers of Philadelphia until 1879 passed today athis summer home in Elberon at the age of fifty-six. He was active in numerousNew York Jewish organizations including Temple Emanu-El where he was serving asa Trustee and Honorary Secretary at the time of his death.

1903:Following the Pogrom at Kishinev, Leo Napoleon Levi, a lawyer from Texas whowas President of the B'nai B'rith, wrote a letter to Czar Nicholas II callingfor an end to the mistreatment of the Jews living in Russia.

1903: MauriceArnold de Forest, one of the adopted sons of Baron Maurice de Hirsch andBaroness Clara de Hirsch, “became a Second Lieutenant in the StaffordshireImperial Yeomanry (Queen's Own Royal Regiment)” today

1903: DorothyLevitt (born Dorothy Levi) won her class at the Southport Speed Trials drivinga S.F.Edge's 12 hp Gladiator, shocking British society as she was the firstwoman, a working secretary, to compete in a motor race. She became noted forracing in a dust coat (a loose coverall coat reaching down to the ankles),matching hat and veil.

1904: In NewYork “the convention of orthodox rabbis of the United States and Canadareassembled this morning where they continued to discuss a letter from Rabbi H.Pereira Mendes which included a request “by Judge Newburger to bring to thenotice of the rabbis that certain marriages that are legal in Jewish law” suchas that between an uncle and his niece “are illegal according to the state ofNew York” and a reminder that it was not too late for them to support the”Jewish Theological “seminary which was established to be a bulwark againstreform Judaism as taught by the Cincinnati College.” (Editor’s note – he was referring to HebrewUnion College, not the University of Cincinnati.)

1905(1stof Tammuz, 5665): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

1905: “inQueens, New York, Fannie (née Cohen), who was from London, and David Trilling,a tailor from Bialystok in Poland gave birth to literary critic andintellectual Lionel Mordecai Trilling.

1905:Independence Day was commemorated in Jerusalem with a display of American andSwedish flags.

1906: “TheJewish Territorial Organizathion of which Israel Zangwill of London is thePresident was officially condemned today at the convention of the Federation ofAmerican Zionists when “a resolution was introduced prohibiting any personknown to be a member of the Territorial Organization from being an officer ormember of the Executive Committee of the American Federation.”

1906: In St.Petersburg, the Ministry of the Interior, the War Office and the Duma’sinvestigating committee issued their reports today which included “theGovernment’s version that attributes the responsibility entirely to the Jews”and the Duma’s version that “expressly declared that no race hatred existed inBialystok and that the ‘pogrom’ was the result of a deliberate plot.”

1907: Attoday’s session of the 18th annual convention of the CentralConference of American Rabbis a message from Judge Louis Sloss of San Franciscoto Judge Julian W. Mack regarding the rehabilitation of the synagoguesdestroyed by the earthquake was received and referred to the appropriatecommittee and Rabbi Isaac Landman read his paper on “Moses Hayyim Luzzato inHonor of His Bicentenary.”

1907: Afternoting that “the Detroit News of July 2, 1907 records another attack of Bitlisand Van,” today, the Rabbis of the Central Conference in convention assembledadopted a resolution recording their “utter abhorrence of persecution in anyform of any people” and stating that it was their “patriotic duty to extend”their “warmest sympathy with the Armenian victims of this most recent epidemicof cruelty and fanaticism.”

1908(5thof Tammuz, 5668): Parashat Korach

1908: InBrooklyn Joseph Zeitland, the Polish born “general collector for a large firmthat led him to travel through Poland and Russia” who came to the United Statesat the age of 85 celebrated his one hundredth birthday today along with the 103rdanniversary of the “birth of Uncle Sam.”

1909: Rabbi Morris Goldberg of Camden, NJ “waselected head of the Brothers of Israel Congregation” today.

1909: ColumbiaUniversity trained Civil Engineer Benjamin J. Sigmund the Polish born son ofSelig and Leonore Sigmund married Leah Astrakhan today after which he becamethe manager of the Philadelhia Office of Truscon Steel Company and a member ofTemple Keneseth Israel.

1910: MelvilleWeston Fuller, the eighth Chief Justice of the United States passed away. Whilesome may remember him for reactionary rulings including Plessy v Ferguson, hewas the one of the signatories of the Blackstone Memorial, a petitionexpressing support for the Jews settling in Palestine that was presented toPresident Benjamin Harrison in 1891. The memorial was the first expression ofsupport to come from leading non-Jewish Americans.

1910: TheEducational League for the Higher Education of Orphans which was organized in1896 held its 15th annual meeting today in Cleveland, Ohio.

1910: In SantaMonica, Frank Stewart and his wife gave birth Gloria Stewart who as GloriaStuart married Arthur Sheekman, the script writer for Eddie Cantor and GrouchoMarx with whom she took a trip around the world in 1939 and then joined him inan attempt to work on Broadway.

1911: InRochester, NY, “Hinda Rosenblum Miller, a former seamstress, and Abram CalmenMiller, a Russian-Jewish immigrant wrought-iron worker gave birth to MitchellWilliam Miller who gained fame a Mitch Miller who was connected with hitrecordings of “Tzena, Tzena,Tzena “ and "The Yellow Rose of Texas"and for his television show, "Sing Along With Mitch."

1911(8thof Tammuz, 5671): Eighty-eight-year-old Esther Herrmann, the widow of clothimporter Henry Herrmann whom she married in 1843 and philanthropist whosesupport went to such organizations as Barnard College of which she was one ofthe founders, the Hebrew Technical Institute for Boys, the American Museum ofNatural History and the Young Men’s Hebrew Association passed away today.

1911: “A farceby Abraham Reuf” who has served less than half of his fourteen sentence forbribery” and who has donated a concert grand piano to the prison is scheduledto be “the main feature of the program” celebrating the Fourth of July at SanQuentin Prison.

1912(19thof Tammuz, 5672): Eighty year old Greenville, Mississippi native and Confederate War veteran JacobMoses passed away today in New Orleans, LA.

1912: AtMarburg University, “celebration of the seventieth anniversary of the birth of HermannCohen, a German-Jewish philosopher, one of the founders of the Marburg Schoolof Neo-Kantianism, who he is often held to be "probably the most importantJewish philosopher of the nineteenth century"

1913: AbeAttell the boxer known as “the Little Hebrew” accidentally hit the referee onthe face during a win against Willie Beecher.

1913: InAtlantic City, at the Conference of American Rabbis Sabbath eve services wereheld at Temple Beth Israel under the leadership of Rabbi William Lowenburg ofUnion Town, PA who served as the Cantor while the sermon was delivered by RabbiCharles S. Levin of Milwaukee, WI.

1913:Independence Day is scheduled to be celebrated this afternoon with “a largechildren’s festival to be held on the grounds of the Chicago Hebrew Institute.”

1914(10thof Tammuz, 4674): Chukat

1914: Today,after almost three years, “the Paris Yiddish-language labor movement journal The Jewish Worker published its lastissue, after its pacifist stance led to a break away from the rest of theFrench labor movement.

1914: “New York fruit merchant” Joseph Kozinskyand his wife gave birth to Herman Kozinksky who would change his name to HermanKing and along with his brothers Maury and Frank formed King Productions, thefilm company that had the courage to hire blacklisted writers during theMcCarthy Era.

1914: SydneyGrundy, the English dramatist whose works included “An Old Jew” a play producedin London in 1894, five years before Israel Zangwill's watershed play, Childrenof the Ghetto was done. Zangwill. (As reported by Edna Nahsohn)Contemporary accounts said the play was panned by critics in London and NewYork because it was “a very bad play with a wildly improbable plot.”

1915: It wasreported today that the recently deceased Rabbi Julius Kaletzky, the author of TheHistory of the Jews in the Ancient East is survived by “his widow, a sonand two daughters on of whom is Mrs. Louis Isaacs whose husband is prominent inthe real east business.”

1915: “FortyYears’ Work On One Book” published today described how Dr. Elieser Ben Jehuda“is giving his life to complete a Hebrew Dictionary.”

1915: In thearea east of the Bowery where Grand Street, Gouverneur Street and SheriffStreet cross and criss-cross, where the signs are in Hebrew characters and theconversations are nearly always in Yiddish” and where “little children who havebeen hurried across the ocean y parents in fear of pogroms” the people are “allcelebrating the signing of the Declaration of Independence.”

1916: RabbiMorris Nathan Taxon, the Lomze, Poland born son of Gruna Haileperin and AbrahamSolomon Taxon married Edyth Irene Schottenstein in Columbus OH today while hewas attending Ohio State and who became the spiritual leader of Shaareth Israelin Dallas starting in 1922.

1916:Birthdate of Martin E. Segal, the native of Vitebsk, Russia, who would become“one of New York’s leading cultural figures” “known as the elder statesman ofLincoln Center for the Performing Arts.” (As reported by Robin Pogrebin)

1916: “Aresolution urging the President and lawmaking bodies of” the United States “toexert every possible effort to avoid war with Mexico” was presented to today’ssession of the Central Conference of American Rabbis by Rabbis DavidPhillipson, Joseph Krauskopf and Julian Morgenstern and then “was adopted by arising vote.”

1916: InPhiladelphia, the Federation of American Zionists adopted “resolutionsapproving the plan of self-taxation of Zionists throughout the United States tocreate an emergency fund to further the work of the Zionists and Palestine andthanking the State Department for its co-operation in relieving suffering Jewsabroad.”

1916: In Troy,NY, George and Margaret Toon gave birth to Malcom Toon who was “namedambassador to Israel in the spring of 1975 by President Ford.”

1917: Former AmbassadorAbram I. Elkus arrived in New York City aboard a French steamer, a day after hehad been originally scheduled to land.

1917: ThePhiladelphia Inquirer reported that the Young Men’s Hebrew Association ofTrenton, NJ, has elected new officers including President Harry Greenburg, VicePresident Meyer Wessel and Financial Secretary Phillip Wenkes

1917: InAsbury Park, NJ, the final day of the Ninth Annual Convention of Young Judaeais scheduled to include “a patriotic gathering and sightseeing

1917: In NewYork City, the Mayor is scheduled to speak at “a patriotic rally” sponsored by“the local Young Men’s Hebrew Association.”

1917: “Hereand There in Camden” published today described listed the newly electedofficers of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association in that New Jersey cityincluding Harry Greenburg, President; Meyer Wessel, Vice President; Dr. PhilipWenkos, Financial Secretary and Trustees Abe Fuhurman, Samuel Mackler, IsaacFrisch, Jack Weinberg, Jacob L. Furer and Arnold Weiss.

1918: Atthe Battle of Hamel John Monash applied his doctrine of "peacefulpenetration", and led Australian Divisions, along with a small detachmentof US troops, to win a decisive victory for the Allies. A native of Australia,Monash was the son of Prussian born Jews and had risen to the rank of MajorGeneral in 1917.

1918: In SiouxCity, Iowa Russian Jewish emigrants Rebecca Friedman (née Rushall) and AbrahamB. Friedman gave birth to twin sisters born within 17 minutes of each other --Esther Pauline Friedman Lederer and Pauline Esther Friedman Phillips. Esther, known as Eppie Lederer became advice columnist AnnLanders. Pauline, nicknamed Popo became Abigail Van Burn or “Dear Abby.”The fact that the two leading advice columnists of the second half of the 20thcentury were Jewish was one of the best kept media secrets.

1918: InChicago, Illinois, the 29th Annual Convention of the CentralConference of American Rabbis came to an end today after having chosen newofficers including Louis Grossman of Cincinnati as President.

1918: Ottomansultan Mehmed VI ascends to the throne. Mehmed had the unenviable challenge ofsalvaging what he could of Ottoman glory as World War I came to the end and theAllies were poised to turn most of the Ottoman Empire into European Colonies.Jews continued to play an active part in the governing of the Empire and theemerging Republic. These included the minister of telegraph Yusuf FrankoPasa and Professor Avram Galante who served as “translator of the foreign pressnews for the Ankara government.”

1918: InJerusalem, General Edmund Allenby, the British general who had liberated theancient Jewish capital from the Ottomans was the guest of honor at the AmericanColony’s Independence Day Celebration

1919: Today,Goldsboro, NC native Gertrude Weil “an active leader at Temple Oheb Shalom” and“the North Carolina Equal Suffrage League wrote a letter to attorney J.O. Carrexplaining why women should be granted the vote – something he opposed.

1920(18thof Tammuz, 5680): Tzom Tammuz observed since the 17th of Tammuz fellon Shabbat

1920: InConnecticut, “Jewish Farmers’ Field Day” which “was sponsored by the I.O.B.B.Jewish Agricultural and Industrial Society, Federation of Jews Farmers, thecouncil of Jewish Women and the Fairfield County Farm Bureau” was held today atthe “farm of Paul Swersky.”

1920: Today’sfinal session of the Central Conference of American Rabbis “was devoted toreceiving the reports of the committees” and hearing a paper by ProfessorGotthard Duetsch on “The Jew in Economic Life.”

1920:Birthdate of Nany Mars, the native of Evanston who gained fame as novelistNancy Freedman, the wife of Benedict Freedman

1920: Morethan fifty delegates Mizrachi delegates are expected to attend the LondonZionist Conference opening today where they would “take up the immediateproblems necessary to re-establish the Jewish National Homeland in Palestine.

1920: TheAmerican delegation to the London Zionist Conference starting today whosemembers included “Hebrew scholar Reuben Rainin,” “A.H. Fromenson, publicitydirection of the ZOA,” Professor Aaron Ember of Johns Hopkins and Mrs. CarolineGreenfield of Atlanta” “will attempt to have the conference approve theirPittsburgh Program for the governing principles of the Holy Land includingequal rights for all irrespective of sex, race or religion…”

1920: The 35thannual convention of the Central Conference of American Rabbis is scheduled tocome to an end today in Rochester, NY.

1921:Birthdate of Philip Rosenberg, who gained fame as Philip Rose, “the producer ofBroadway shows like “A Raisin in the Sun” and “Purlie Victorious” whoadvanced the cause of black playwrights and actors and helped widen the scopeof American theater to include stories of blacks and other minorities…’ (Asreported by Bruce Weber)

1921: RabbiJoseph Hertz, the Chief Rabbi of the British Empire, began a six-week tour “thattook him across Western Canada with stops in Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton,Saskatoon, Regina and Winnipeg delivering eleven sermons and speaking atthirteen meetings as well as receptions with four Lieutenant-Governors,received by seven Mayors and visiting three provincial Premiers.”

1921: Thefuneral of Jacob A. Cantor was held at his home in New York City today. RabbiM. H. Harris of Temple Israel delivered the eulogy. Cantor, an attorney bytraining, had been active in the New York Democratic Party for several decadesholding a variety of positions including U.S. Congressman. The servicewas attended by numerous prominent government officials.

1922: Twenty-three-year-oldNYU alum and JTS trained rabbi Herman Hailperin who led Tree of LifeCongregation in Pittsburg for over forty years, married his first wife HarrietSilverman.

1923: As awave of bigotry swept over America’s heartland, today “in a creekside park inKokomo, Ind., families celebrated Independence Day with flags and bunting,watermelon and pie, patriotic songs, a parade which was viewed by manythousands, wearing the white hoods and robes of the Ku Klux Klan. Bannersinsisted that “America is for Americans”

1923: It wasreported today that “because of an error in the attestation of Simon Wolf’swill,” it is void and his widow Amy L. Wolf will administer the estate as if nosuch document existed.

1923: A moviemade by Delaware native William Topkis at the urging of the Keren KayemethLeIsrael-Jewish National Fund “to encourage American tourism and Aliya” whichhad been filmed in Palestine was shown for the first time at the Zion Cinema inJerusalem. (As reported by David Geffen)

1924: “Thebath director at Borkum, the well-known German island bathing resort, has beendismissed from his post because he permitted the playing by a Borkum orchestraof the anti-semitic "Borkum song" despite police prohibition andprotests from Jewish associations and individuals

1925(12thof Tammuz, 5685): Parashat Chukat and Balak are read on Independence Day.

1925: “TheJewish Palestine Exploration Society is continuing excavations along theso-called Third Wall of Jerusalem” which has resulted in the uncovering of 196.

1926:Birthdate of Viennese native Amos Elon, who in 1933 made Aliyah to Palestinewhere he studied law and history, became “a journalist and author and married“New York-born literary agent Beth Elon,” with whom he had one child –“filmmaker Danae Elon.”

1926: TheNazis inaugurate their youth movement which is known as the Hitler Yout1927: Inthe Bronx, “Irving Simon, a garment salesman” and “Mamie (Levy) Simon gavebirth to playwright Neil Simon some of whose hits included The Odd Couple,Plaza Suite and Biloxi Blues.

1927(4thof Tammuz, 5687): Forty-six year old Julius Daniels, the son of Bernhard andJulia Kaatz Daniels and the brother of Max, Minnie, Samuel and Hattie Danielspassed away today in Chicago.

1927:Nathaniel Phillips, the Chairman of Mayor’s Committee on Independence DayReceptions to First Voters was among those who addressed the 7,500 men andwomen who attended a Fourth of July celebration to in City Hall Park urging“the new voters to use their franchises earnestly and intelligently, toassociate themselves with a political organization and to forget all lines ofrace, creed and color.”

1927: Fivethousand KKK members whose credo includes anti-Semitism, their wives andchildren celebrated Independence Cay on a ten acre field at Babylon, LongIsland

1928: “Onethousand children from Jewish schools of New York joined the same number fromPhiladelphia today in a pilgrimage to Independence Square, where they saw theLiberty Bell and sang The Star Spangled Banner.”

1928: RabbiS.S. Wise, Adolph Zukor, Felix M. Warburg, Abram Elkus and Paul M. Warburg areamong the members of the Mayor’s Committee on Citizenship formed by New YorkMayor Walker whose first function is to host a reception this evening forfirst-time voters “which will follow the plan of last year’s reception wen13,000 new voters gathered at the City Hall Plaza…”

1928: Thirty-six-year-oldMax M. Levand, the Cincinnati, OH born son of Lena Bardenstein Levand, and hisbrothers “Louis, Max and John purchased the Beacon newspaper today.

1929: Eighty-six-year-oldSarah Bancroft Foster Leavitt, who gave President Theodore Roosevelt twoseven-branch menorahs that he kept at “Sagamore Hill, his 95-acre estate on theNorth Shore of Long Island, New York.”

1929: InBrocton, Massachusetts, Rose and Louis Davis gave birth to Allen “Al” Davis adriving force behind the creation of the American Football League who was the‘legendary owner and general manager of the Oakland Raiders.”

1929: “44Union Square, also known as 100 East 17th Street and the Tammany Hall Building”designed by Charles B. Meyers opened today.

1929: When the“Ah-Say-Fah Ha’Nivcharim” (Assembly of the Chosen) resumes its meetingJaobtinsky loses the vote to ignore the organization’s’ agenda and leads theeleven revisionist delegates out of the meeting after reading a speechattacking the Jewish Agency.

1930: It wasstated in a bulletin issued by Hadassah today, that “school children inPalestine who attended the schools of the Jewish Agency in Palestine during thepast year showed a rate of only 7 per cent suffering from trachoma as comparedwith a rate of 62 percent among those attending government schools/”

1931:According to a report by the Labor Department of the Jewish Agency made publictoday by the American Palestine Campaign, “few countries in the world affordwomen such equality of opportunity as is enjoyed by Jewish women inPalestine.” Out of work force of 23,830 most of which is located inJerusalem, Tel Aviv, Haifa and Petach Tikvah 18,067 are men and 5,754 arewomen. While the largest number of women works in agricultural endeavors,they are also represented in manufacturing, the professions and governmentwork.

1932:Birthdate of Martin Cohan, the TV writer and producer who co-created 'Who's theBoss?'

1933:Birthdate of David Gerald Littman, the London born human rights activist whoseefforts including rescuing Moroccan and Russian Jews who is the brother of Lewis Littman, thefounder of the Littman Library of Jewish Civilization and the husband of GisèleOrebi, the author known as Bat Ye’or.

1933: Elyakum Heinrich Loeweand his family immigrated to Palestine where he became a librarian.

1934:AnInspectorate of Concentration Camps is established, headed by Theodor Eicke.

1934:Rebbetzin Renee Schick, who founded the Schick's Bakery in Boro Park in 1941and her husband gave birth to political science Professor Allen Shick fifteenminutes after having given birth to Marvin Schick.

1934(21st ofTammuz, 5694): Zionist poet Chaim Nachman Bialik passed away. Born inRussia in 1873, Bialik had a traditional Talmudic education. However, at anearly age he was attracted to Zionism and became a member of the Lovers ofZion. He fell under the influence of the author Achad Ha’am. His Hebrew poetryreflected the idea that Zionism was as much a cultural as it was a politicalmovement. One of his famous early poems was "City of Slaughter"written in response to the pogrom at Kishnev. Bialik made Aliyah in 1924. Suchwas his influence that during his lifetime, he was called the "nationalpoet," a title that has remained to this day. For those interested inreading his works in translation, consider looking at a copy of “Songs fromBialik: Selected Poems of Hayim Nachman Bialik.”

1934: LeoSzilard, the Hungarian born Jew who would take refuge in the United States andbecome part of the Manhattan Project, patents the chain-reaction design for theatomic bomb.

1935: “Theanti-Jewish campaign continues with renewed virulence throughout Germany.”

1935: It wasreported today that “the windows of a confectionary in a suburb of Berlin wereplastered with anti-Jewish signs” and that “customers were threatened forpatronizing a Jews..

1936: InNapoli, Italy Margit and Pasquale Frustaci gave birth to Cesare Frustaci, theHolocaust survivor who now lives at Port Charlotte who has dedicated himself toovercoming the lies told by the Holocaust Deniers.

1936: The 39thannual meeting of the Zionist Organization of America opened tonight inProvidence, RI.

1936:“American Jews in Palestine celebrated Independence Day without Fires” and thetraditional baseball game sponsored by the United States Consul General did nottake place “because of the gravity of the situation” i.e. Arab violence

1937: Today,in Palestine “both Arabs and Jews” are “impatiently awaiting the royal inquirycommission’s report and recommendation for a solution of the nationalitiesproblem” with the Jews fearful of an outbreak of Arab violence.

1938: TheManshieh quarter on the Jaffa-Tel Aviv border was again the scene of violenceearly this morning as Jews reportedly attacked Arabs apparently in retaliationfor the Arab campaign of violence that began in 1937. Major Hebrewlanguage dailies condemned the attacks, regardless of the reasons for whichthey launched.

1938:Birthdate of Robert Abrams the New York State Attorney General and BronxBorough President.

1939: Esther"Etty" Hillesum took the second and final part of master’s exams inDutch Law.

1939: AJudenrate called The Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland (Reich'sAssociation of the Jews in Germany whichhad jurisdiction over all of Germany was established today.

1939: Fifty-nine-year-oldNYU Law School Graduate and former Republican Congressman Isaac Siegel “wasappointed as a magistrate of New York City,” today.

1939: Today,“The Nazi regime passed the tenth supplementary decree to the Reich CitizenshipLaw and established a new central Jewish organization, the Reichsvereinigungder Juden in Deutschland directly subordinated to the Reich minister of theinterior” which had as it is purpose “the promotion of Jewish emigration” andwhich reinforced the decision that converts, called “Christian non-Aryans” wereto be treated as Jews.

1940: “AllThis And Heaven Too” a movie version of the novel by the same name directed andproduced by Anatole Litvak and with music by Max Steiner was released today inthe United States.

1940: LeonBlum went to Vichy to voice his opposition to the proposed constitutionalreform granting all power to Marshall Pétain.”

1940: “AllThis, and Heaven Too” a film adaptation of the novel of the same name producedby David Lewis and Anatole Litvak who also served as director and with music byMax Steiner was released in the United States today.

1940: As partof its deal with Hitler which made it possible for him to start WW II, theSoviet Union completed its occupation and annexation of Bessarabia, NorthernBukovina and the Hertza Region of Romania.

1941:Birthdate of Cannes native Pierre Brochand who served as French Ambassador toIsrael from 1993 to 1995.

1941: InLiepāja, the roundup of Jews by SS-Obersturmbannführer Reichert’s EK 1a menbegun last night came to an end this morning hundreds being slaughtered inRainis Park.

1941: TheNazis murdered scientists and writers in the captured city of Lvov.

1941(9th ofTammuz, 5701): Lithuanian militiamen murdered 416 Jewish men, 47 Jewish womenin Kovno at the Seventh Fort.

1941:Twothousand Jews from Lutsk, Ukraine, are transported to the Lubard Fortress andkilled.

1941(9th ofTammuz, 5701): Fifty-four Jews are killed at Vilna, Lithuania.

1941: BetweenJuly 4 and July 11 five thousand Jews are killed in Ternopol, Ukraine.

1942: “Thefirst Army Air Forces bomber mission over Western Europe was flown by US crewsof the 15th Bomb Squadron operating British Bostons IIIs (the Royal Air Force'sname for most of their Havocs) against airfields in the Netherlands.” (Editor note – for all of those who arecritical of the U.S. failure to bomb the concentration camps, please note thatthe first U.S. attack took place seven months after Pearl Harbor and the planesused were twin-engine bombers of limited range and no significantarmament. In other words, the planes didnot exist for the attack that modern revisionists like to call for.)

1943: InManhattan, Lillian (née Friedman) and Cruz "Allen" Rivera gave birthto Gerald Michael Rivera who gained fame as Geraldo Rivera.

1944(13th ofTammuz, 5704): Corporal David H. Rubenstein was killed in action in France. Hewas the 19th Milford, Massachusetts man to lose his life in World War II.“Milford’s Fallen Family” of that war would come to total 55.

1944: Sarah Levendal, the mother of IsaacLevendal, “arrived at Auschwitz today, where she became victim number 23925.”

1944:Onethousand Jewish women are sent from Auschwitz to Hamburg, Germany, to pull downthe remains of structures damaged during Allied bombing raids.

1944:Inone of the tragedies of WW II, 250 inmates, most of them French Jews, from theAlderney camp on the Occupied Channel Islands are killed by fire from Britishwarships while being transported to the mainland.

1944: The Milice,the anti-Semitic French militia working for the Vichy Government and the Naziscaptured Jewish journalist and Resistance leader Georges Mandel.

1944: BetweenJuly 4 and July 5, 2565 Jews from Pápa, Hungary, are sent to Auschwitz just asthe Hungarian government is poised to defy Germany and halt the deportation.Only 30 of Pápa's 2800 Jews will survive the war.

1945: InManhattan, Woodhaven department store own Larry Lewis and the former FrancesDistler gave birth to Barry Stephen Lewiswho gained fame as “an erudite and wisecracking architectural historianwhose lectures and walking tours of New York City neighborhoods made him alocal celebrity…” (As reported by Penelope Green)

1945: InTripoli, Libya and in other Libyan towns, Muslims began anti- Jewish riots.

1946: A Pogromtook place in Kielce, Poland. The date is correct –1946. One year after the endof the World War II and the Holocaust and a Polish mob attacked a house inKielce in Poland where almost all of the town's surviving Jews were living (200of the original 25,000). Forty-two Jews were brutally murdered, another 50injured. This was followed by a chaotic mass exodus of around 150,000 Jews fromacross Poland to DP camps in Germany

1946:Following todays pogrom in Kielce, Poland “more than 100,000 Jews”fled tothe American Zone of Occupation in Germany putting an unbelievable strain onthe DP resources that had been allocated by the U.S. Government.

1946: “TheUnknown,” a mystery directed by Henry Levin, was released in the United Statestoday.

1946:Birthdate of financier Michael Milken, a wizard of Wall Street, whose namebecame synonymous with greed and the Junk Bond Scandal and who eventually endedup going to prison for his part in the financial fraud that was rampant in the1980’s but later became known as a “philanthropist” when he co-founded theMilken Family Foundation.

1947(16th ofTammuz, 5707): Fifty-three-year-old Chicago native and WW I Navy veteran SalemN. Baskin, the advertising executive and one-time head of the Baskin ClothingStore who raised two daughters and one son, Mark, with his wife Bess Baskin,passed away today.

1947: DavidBen-Gurion appeared before the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine(UNSCOP). During his testimony which covered the history of the Jewishpeople and the reasons for creating a Jewish state in Palestine Ben Guriontells the UN officials that “What happened to our people in this war is merelya climax to the uninterrupted persecution to which we have been subjected forcenturies by almost all the Christian and Moslem peoples in the world.’

1948: PitcherMarv Rotblatt made his major league debut with the Chicago White Sox.

1949: “CityAcross the River,” a film based on The Amboy Dukes by Irving Shulman with atask that included Tony Curtis as “Mitch” was released today in the UnitedStates after premiering in New York in April.

1949: Indescribing the progress of the nation's so-called austerity program today Dr.Bernard Joseph, Minister of Supply and Rationing, disclosed that Israeliimporters functioning in collateral fields have been requested by theGovernment to pool their efforts with a view to obtaining the lowest possibleprices in world markets.

1951: TheJerusalem Post reported that an accidental blast in a quarry of Even V’SidCompany on Castel Hill killed eight workers and injured six others. Theholiday-with-pay principle was legally established in Israel following thefinal reading of the Annual Leave Bill in the Knesset. Employees were entitledto a minimum of 14 days' paid vacation as of October 1, 1951. The employee musthave worked 200 days out of year's contract or must have worked 240 single daysfor the same employer in any one 12-month period to be entitled to such paidleave.

1951(30thof Sivan, 5711): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz coincides with Independence Day in theUnited States.

1951: In whatwould be known in the West as the “Doctor’s Plot” escalated when the Politburoset up an investigatory commission headed by Lavrentiy Beria head of thedreaded secret police which at that time was called the NKVD.

1954: InHutchinson, Kansas, Julius E. and Ruth (Gottfried) Kaplan gave birth to Fred M.Kaplan the Oberlin graduate and Slate contributor who “was a member of a teamthat won a 1983 Pulitzer Prize for a special Sunday Boston Globe Magazinearticle, "War and Peace in the Nuclear Age", on the U.S.-Sovietnuclear arms race.

1955(14thof Tammuz, 5715: On Independence Day, 51-year-old Boston born and Harvardtrained attorney Milton A Kramer, a partner in the law firm of Kramer, Marx,Greenlee and Backus and the husband of Enid Saper with whom he raised twochildren, John and Alison, passed away today at his home in New York.

1956: Today,Foreign Minister Golda Myers told the Knesset that “there has been no decisionby the government of Israel to enter into negotiations for a diplomaticexchange with the West German Government” led by Chancellor Konrad Adenauer.

1957: In NewYor, State Senator Joseph Zaretsk accused two Republican Assembly leaders “ofconducting the Legislature's watchdog committee as a "political propagandamachine."

1959(28thof Sivan, 5719): Parashat Sh’lach

1959(28thof Sivan, 5719): Seventy-seven-year-old financier and Democratic Party lead Frederick Lewisohn, the Manhattan born son of RosalieJacobs Lewisohn and Leonard Lewisohn, “the founder of Lewisohn Brothers whichbecame the largest copper sales agency in the world and the husband of RhodaSeligman Prudhome whom he married in 1907 who served as the president of TheTennessee Copper Company, and who was the founder of The South American and PlatinumCompany as well as the Lewisohn Copper Corporation that developed copperholdings in Arizona suffered a fatal heart attack today in Monte Carlo afterwhich he was buried in Salem Fields Cemetery in Brooklyn.

1959: Alaskabecomes the 49th state to join the Union. Jewish involvement withAlaska dates back to January, 1868 when the Alaska Commercial Company wasformed in by a group of Jewish businessman in San Francisco including LouisSloss (President), Lewis Gerstle (Vice President), Simon Greenwald, WilliamKohl and A. Wasserman. Jews were included in those went “North to Alaska”during the Gold Rush of the 1890’s. There was actually an attempt madebefore World War II to turn the Alaska Territory into a refuge for Jews fleeingHitler. The plan failed. Ernest Gruening, a Jew from New York, wasone of Alaska’s most prominent early political leaders. A supporter ofstatehood, he served as territorial governor and then was elected as one of thestate’s first two United States Senators. Gruening joined Wayne Morris asone of only two Senators to vote against the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution.The vote cost him his seat. But it made him one of the first to see thefolly of the Viet Nam War.

1960: Thanksto the intervention of Mayor Wagner American Nazi did hold a rally in NewYork’s Union Square because the city’s chief executive said that his appearancewas an “invitation to riot and disorder.”

1960: GeorgeLincoln Rockwell and eight of his American Nazi Party members were arrested atthe Washington National Mall when a riot broke out during one his politicaldemonstrations.

1960:“Franklin Letter Proves Puzzler” published today traces the history“surrounding a letter in which Benjamin wrote in 1787 of the ‘enthusiastic joywit which the Day of the Declaration of Independence is everywhere annually celebrated’”which was bought at auction two years ago by “Nathaniel E. Stein, manager ofNewburger, Loeb and Company, stockbrokers and a collector of historical manuscripts.”

1963: U.S.premiere of “The Great Escape” with music by Elmer Bernstein.

1965: inMontville, NJ, Dr. Lawrence Yorn, a dentist and captain in the Army, and JoanYorn gave birth to Tulane University “attorney and investor” Kevin Brett Yornwho went from working in the D.A.’soffice for five years in the Hardcore Gang Investigations Unit to cofounding “YornBarnes Levine Entertainment Law Firm where he is managing partner.”

1965: The 68thannual convention of the Z.O.A. which has been meeting at the HotelWaldorf-Astoria is scheduled to come to an end today,

1967: In theGeneral Assembly of the UNChile gave its full support to the resolutionof the Latin American Bloc in the aftermath of the Six-Day War.

1967: Just amonth after the “Six Day War” a MiG-17 was shot down when Egyptian warplanesattacked Israelis in the Sinai Peninsula.

1968:Birthdate of Ronni Ancona “a Scottish actress, impressionist and author” who“won the Best TV Comedy Actress award at the 2003 British Comedy Awards for herwork in Big Impression.”

1969(18thof Tammuz, 5729): German-born Erwin Blumenfeld who escaped Nazi-occupied Parisand eventually made his way to NYC to pursue the American Dream and whose photographswere featured on the covers of renowned fashion brands such as Vogue andHarper's Bazaar passed away today.

1970(30th ofSivan, 5730): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

1970(30th ofSivan, 5730): American painter Barnett Newman passed away.

1971(11thof Tammuz, 5731): Eighty-one year old Albert Matarasso, a retired insurancebroker and a leader in the Sephardic Jewish community, who translated booksfrom Ladino while two children – Daniel and Alice – with his wife Dora passed away today.

1972: Eighty-eight-year-oldCommunist party leader Max Bedacht who was raised as a Catholic and issometimes misidentified as being Jewish because when he was a member of theCentral Committee he was one of only two members the other eight being “foreignborn Jews” passed away today.,+jewish&source=bl&ots=-uAqbuwLX8&sig=ACfU3U1HV-UsH06-nQqNNFKOyPUvme_Lwg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj6m-miyq_qAhUHac0KHW8nAbsQ6AEwAHoECAcQAQ#v=onepage&q=max%20bedacht%2C%20jewish&f=false

1974: Seventy-one-year-oldnovelist Georgette Heyer, author of the 1950 Regency Roman, The Grand Sophywhich featured a “villainous moneylender named Goldhanger, who is described asa “swarthy individual, with long, greasy curls, a semitic nose, and aningratiating leer” in a scene which has come to be seen as anti-Semitic and whichwas, “sanitized” in a posthumously revised edition much to the chagrin of thosewho think an author’s work should not be “modified” to comply with 21stcentury sensitivity.

1974: AvitalSharansky (Natasha Stiglitz) emigrated from Moscow to Israel

1975(25th ofTammuz, 5735): In Jerusalem’s Zion Square, members of the PLO detonate a bombhidden in a refrigerator which killed fourteen and wounded seventy.Victims included Arabs as well as Jews.

1976: TheJerusalem Post reported that there was extensive violence in the West Banktowns in protest against the fatal shooting of an 18-year-old Arab youth duringclashes with security forces during the weekend.

1976: TheJerusalem Post reported that the giant American Bicentennial National Parkin the Jerusalem hills was officially opened to the public.

1976:Operation Thunderbolt came to a successful conclusion as aircraft carrying 102rescued hostages and the IDF units that had rescued them land in Israel.

1976: Today,Peter “Max began his Statue of Liberty series leading to his efforts withChrysler CEO Lee Iacocca to help in the restoration of the statue.”

1976(6thof Tammuz, 5736): Antoni Słonimski, Polish poet and author, passed away.Slonimski spent the war years in exile in Britain. He returned to Polandin 1951 where he was a staunch anti-Stalinist.

1976(6thof Tammuz, 5736): The Entebbe Rescue – Over 100 Jewish and Israeli hostagesfrom an Air France plane being held prisoner by Palestinian terrorists andUgandan soldiers who were threatening to murder them if their demands were notmet were rescued by Israeli commandos in a brilliant ruse under the command ofYonatan Netanyahu who was shot in the back during the rescue. Netanyahu was one of four Israeli soldiers killed in therescue mission. Tragically, 19-year-old Jean-Jacues Maimoni, 52-year-oldPasco Cohen and 56 year old Ida Borochovitch were killed in the cross fire . Seventy-five-year-oldDora Bloch, who was undergoing treatment at Mulago Hospital, was murdered bythe Ugandans as revenge for the raid.

1977(18thof Tammuz, 5737): Sixty-eight-year-old Odessa native and City College andColumbia alum Maurice Chernowitz, the professor of fine arts at YeshivaUniversity and the husband of the “former Rose Fineman” with whom he raised twodaughters – Tamara and Rena – passedaway today

1978: Theexhibit “A Treasury of Modern Drawing: The Joan and Lester Avnet Collection”which had been exhibited starting on April 27 at the Museum of Modern Art cameto a close today.

1979: SimonVeil completed her term as French Minister of Health.

1979(9thof Tammuz, 5739): Fifty-three-year-old legendary basketball referee Marvin“Mendy” Rudolph” passed away today.

1979: “TheWanderers” directed by Philip Kaufman who co-authored the script with his wifeRose Kaufman and featuring Alan Rosenberg as “Turkey” was released in theUnited States today.

1980:Birthdate of Michael “Maxy” Klinger, the Australian born cricketer.

1981: TheAmerican premiere of “Halil” took place at Tanglewood today “with DoriotAnthony Dwyer as the soloist and members of the Boston Symphony Orchestra.”‘Halil’ is a work for flute and chamber orchestra composed by Leonard Bernsteincomposed in 1981. The work is sixteen minutes in length. Bernstein composedHalil in honor of a young Israeli flutist Yadin Tanenbaum who was killed at theSuez Canal in during the 1973 Yom Kippur war.”

1983:Birthdate of Los Angeles native and major league baseball coach Ethan RussellKatz, the minor league pitcher who spent one season as the pitching coach forthe San Francisco Giants before taking a similar position with the ChicagoWhite Sox in 2021.

1985: Today,Admiral Hyman Rickover, the Jewish father of the modern nuclear U.S. Navy “suffered what was described as a "serious" stroke,and was admitted to Bethesda Naval Hospital, thereafter dealing with partialparalysis in his right arm.”

1986(27th ofSivan, 5746): Eighty-seven-year-old Russian born, American mathematician OscarZariski passed away.

1987: NaziKlaus Barbie, "Butcher of Lyon" is convicted by a French court.

1988: The bulkof the Furth family summer estate at Yarrow Point on the east shore of LakeWashington, which traces its origins back to Jacob Furth “was deeded to thetowns of Yarrow Point and Hunts Point as the Wetherill Nature Preserve” today.

1988: Fifty-five-year-oldBen Briscoe followed in the footsteps of his father Robert Briscoe when hebecame Lord Mayor of Dublin after defeating the incumbent by 6 votes in anelection held by members of the city council.

1992(3rd ofTammuz, 5752): Ninety-eight year old painter and printmaker Harry Gottliebpassed away.

1993: Thefirst round of family tours of Israel sponsored by the American Jewish Congresscome to an end.

1996(17thof Tammuz, 5756): Tzom Tammuz

1998: SandraBernhard gave birth to daughter Cicely Yasin Bernhard

1999: TheNew York Times reviews books by Jewish authors and/or of special interestto Jewish readers including The Story Begins: Essays on Literature byAmos Oz and The Elusive Embrace: Desire and the Riddle of Identity byDaniel Mendelsohn.

2000(1stof Tammuz, 5760): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

2000: “A courtcalled an indefinite halt to the country's first Nazi-era war crimes trial,citing the poor health of 93-year-old defendant, Aleksandras Lileikis, a formerAmerican citizen stripped of his passport who has denied charges that he turnedover Jews to Nazi executioners during the German occupation of Lithuania”

2000: “Leadersof the Palestine Liberation Organization decided late tonight in Gaza City thata Palestinian state should be declared by mid-September, whether or not apermanent peace deal has been reached with the Israelis.”

2001(13thof Tammuz, 5761): Thirty-two-year-old Eliahu Na’aman was shot today at Sueika.

2001(13thof Tammuz, 5761): Ninety-year-old Leonard Pines, the man who Hebrew Nationalthe “gold standard in cold cuts” for generations of Jews and expanded theproduct to the non-Jewish world, passed away today. (As reported by David CayJohnson)

2002: JewishNational Fund officials announced that retired Tel Aviv District Court JudgeArye Segelson will head the organization's investigation into allegations ofmisconduct in JNF's 'Plant a Tree With Your Own Hands' program for tourists.

2002 (24th ofTammuz, 5762): A gunman opened fire at Israel's El Al airline ticket counter atLos Angeles International Airport; three people were killed, including thegunman

2002(24thof Tammuz, 5762): Eighty-seven-year-old French mathematician Laurent Schwartzwho won the Fields Medal in 1950 passed away today.

2003:Prime Minister SilvioBerlusconi of Italy apologized to Chancellor Gerhard Schröder of Germany forlikening a German member of the European Parliament to a bullying guard in aNazi concentration camp.”

2003: In“Europe’s Jewish Space at Center Stage” published today Ruth Ellen Gruber how“Jewish stage and screen professionals” see the manner in which “Jewish themesare addressed in contemporary European theatre.”

2004: TheNew York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or ofspecial interest to Jewish readers including Conspirators by MichaelAndré Bernstein and Politics: Observations & Arguments byHendrik Hertzberg

2004: At theFairmont Hotel in San Francisco, Rabbi Sholom Tendler is scheduled to officiateat the wedding of 23 year old Gabriella Sarah Rosen, “a founder of the Women’sResource Center at Boston Medical Center and 25 year old Jesse Oren Kellerman,the writer and playwright who is the son of two mystery writers – FayeKellerman and Jonathan Kellerman.

2004: TzipiLivni began serving as Minister of Construction and Housing

2004(15th ofTammuz, 5764): Victor Kreiderman, 49, was killed by terrorists in Israel.

2005: Todaymarks the 160th anniversary since Judah Solomon and the entireJewish community of Hobart Town turned out for” for the opening of what is nowHobart Hebrew Congregation in Tasmania.

2006: “Duringa joint operation conducted by the IDF and the Israel Security Authorities, thethree Tanzim militants whom murdered Eliyahu Asheri and whom were hiding in thea Palestinian Police headquarters building in Ramallah, were apprehended aftera three-hour standoff”

2007: MeirSheerit succeeded Roni Bar-On as Minister of the Interior.

2007: Ze’evBoim succeded Meir Sheerit as Minister of Construction and Housing

2007: YaakovEdri began serving as Minister for the Development of the Negev and Galilee.

2007: In an interview broadcast on Channel 10 Abu Mutfana- a leader in the Army of Islam – said that the kidnappers of Cpl. GiladSchalit have transferred him to the custody of Hamas,

2008(1stof Tammuz, 5768): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

2008: TheWashington Post features a review of Undiscovered by Jewish actress,Debra Winger

2008: Americanlegal scholar Cass Sunstein married Ambassador Samantha Power.

2008: As partof its 4th of July cookout themed advertising, Wal Mart touts theavailability of “100% all kosher Hebrew National Hot Dogs.” The Red,White and Blue meets OU!

2008: “Kabluey”a comedy starring Lisa Kudrow that had premiered in Los Angeles was released inthe United States today.

2008:Following two days each punctuated by a rocket attack on Israel, Hamas today announced that it was suspending allnegotiations with Israel over the release of captured IDF soldier GiladSchalit.

2008: Despitethe seemingly endless rounds of adversity that would break the spirits oflesser people, the Jews of Tel Aviv showed their true mettle by hosting thefourth annual mass water fight in Rabin Square which drew hundreds of children,teens and adults.

2008(1stof Tammuz, 5768): 1st Lt. Daniel Farkas was killed today, at Camp Phoenix inKabul, Afghanistan. He was 42 years old. “Daniel Farkas, a 20-year-veteran ofthe New York City Police Department and a dedicated athlete, had been a memberof the National Guard since 1992. He lived in Brooklyn with his mother, twosisters and two nieces, the New York Daily News reported. Farkas was honoredwith the Afghanistan Campaign Medal, the Global War on Terrorism ExpeditionaryMedal, the Armed Forces Reserve Medal and the National Defense Service Medal,among others. (As reported by The Forwards)

2009: InAlexandria, VA, Jews of the Old Dominion celebrate Independence Day with a"Red, White & Blue Tot Shabbat" in the chapel at Beth El HebrewCongregation.

2009: There isno Independence Day Celebration at the U.S. Embassy in Israel on July 4 becausethe official celebration took place on July 1. The celebration included remarksby the Ambassador on the 233rd anniversary of U.S. Independence, Shiri Maimonsinging the “Star-Spangled Banner” and “Hatikva” and fireworks lighting up thenight sky above the cliffs of the Mediterranean.

2009(12thof Tammuz, 5769): Pfc. Aaron E. Fairbairn was killed today, when insurgentsattacked his base in eastern Afghanistan. He was 20 years old. “Aaron Fairbairnwas born nearly two months premature and had to be fed from a Barbie bottleuntil he was big enough to move into the regular natal facility. A happy andfriendly child, Fairbairn overcame the health problems he faced as a baby andbecame fiercely devoted to his family. He showed a dedication to hard work atan early age, quitting sports in the seventh grade to work four differentnewspaper routes to buy his first car by the time he was 14 years old. Hisfamily told the Forward there was nothing Fairbairn enjoyed more than workingon his cars. He owned seven trucks by the time he was 20. Born Aaron EliBen-Neth, Fairbairn took his mother’s surname when he was 18 years old.Grandson and son of Vietnam War veterans, Fairbairn decided early on he wantedto enlist and establish a career for himself in the army. Always a slight man,Fairbairn was only 115 pounds when he went into the army and worked incrediblyhard to reach 145 pounds. Fairbairn was so proud that he was serving that hewore his uniform around town in Aberdeen, Wash., when he was home on leave.When news of a kidnapped soldier in Afghanistan coincided with no communicationfrom her son for a week, Shelly Fairbairn told the Forward she envisioned theworst case scenario. “But then he called [and] we breathed a sigh of relief…thenext morning when the soldiers showed up at my door I thought maybe they werehere because it’s Fourth of July… [I thought,] it can’t be, we just spoke tohim yesterday.” (As reported in The Forwards)

2009(12thof Tammuz, 5769): Sixty-three-year-old French businessman Robert Louis-Dreyfuspassed away today in Zurich.

2009(12thof Tammuz, 5769): Sixty-two year old Drake Levin, the lead guitarist for PaulRevere and the Raiders passed away today. (As reported by Bruce Weber)

2009: JuliusShulman's last exhibit at Craig Krull Gallery (his Los Angeles gallery since1991) opened today.

2009(12thof Tammuz, 5769): Seventy-seven-year-old Allen Klein, the business manager forSam Cooke, the Rolling Stones and the Beatles passed away today.

2009: On theBillboard Hot 100 chart, both “Best I Ever Had” and “Every Girl” featuringCanadian Rapper Drake (Aubrey Drake Graham) {entered the top ten at positions 3and 10 respectively” making him “only the second artist to have his first twotop ten hits in the same week.”

2010: TheNew York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or ofspecial interest to Jewish readers including Rough Justice: The Rise andFall of Eliot Spitzer by Peter Elkind, Journal of the PlagueYear: An Insider’s Chronicle of Eliot Spitzer’s Short and Tragic Reign byLloyd Constantine and The Frozen Rabbi by Steve Stern.

2011:Thirty-fifth anniversary of the Raid on Entebbe. Joy is still tempered bythe sadness at the loss of Yonatan "Yoni" Netanyahu, the thirty-year-oldofficer who was the only IDF casualty during this act of derring-do.Herman Wouk, the famous author, offered these words about Netanyahu. "Hewas a taciturn philosopher-soldier of terrific endurance, a hard-fibered,charismatic young leader, a magnificent fighting man. On the Golan Heights, inthe Yom Kippur War, the unit he led was part of the force that held back a seaof Soviet tanks manned by Syrians, in a celebrated stand; and after Entebbe,"Yoni" became in Israel almost a symbol of the nation itself. Todayhis name is spoken there with somber reverence."

2011: TheAssociation of Americans of Americans and Canadians in Israel (AACI) arescheduled to celebrate 4th of July and Canada Day at Kraft Stadiumin Jerusalem

2011: AsAmericans celebrate Independence, Jews can take pride in their active supportof the patriot cause. Besides the famous Hyam Solomon, “there were hundreds ofJewish soldiers and sailors who fought in the Revolution and patriots whosupported it. There was Phillip Russell, a surgeon at Valley Forge; Col. DavidFranks an aide to George Washington; a “Jew Company, " which fought inSouth Carolina; Moses Myers, who fought in Virginia; the Sheftall family, whichfought and were captured in Savannah. In Manhattan's Chatham Square cemetery,22 Revolutionary Jewish soldiers lie. Many had sacrificed their lives for theirnew country. Just like the approximately 500 Americans who were killed orwounded during the three British assaults at Bunker Hill in 1775. (New evidencehas surfaced that a Jewish soldier, Abraham Solomon, participated in the Battleof Bunker Hill as a member of Colonel John Glover's 21st Regiment fromGloucester.)”

2011: TheCanadian ship "Tahrir", participating in the flotilla to Gaza,attempted to depart from the Greek port of Agios Nikolaos today, but wasintercepted by the Greek coast guard shortly after departure.

2011: DefenseMinister Ehud Barak ordered a stop to the transfer of the bodies of 84Palestinian terrorists to the Palestinian Authority at the last minute today,despite earlier confirmation from the IDF Spokesperson's Office that thetransfer would go through. Barak made his decision to hold off on the transferafter a Haaretz report revealed that two of the bodies to be returned to the PAwere the Awadallah brothers, former leaders of the Hamas military wing, whowere killed by Israeli soldiers near Hebron in September 1998.

2012: TheMaltz Museum of Jewish Heritage is scheduled to host an Independence DayCelebration featuring including live Americana music and free flags for theyoungsters

2012: In honorof Independence Day, the Jewish Community Alliance of Jacksonville, FL, isscheduled to sponsor a Family Fun Day completed with hot dog, games, prizes anda DJ

2012: In honorIndependence Day, the National Museum of American Jewish History, will be openfree to the public today.

2012: TheJewish Women’s Archives celebrates Independence Day by sponsoring an contestwhere readers can honor the FIJW (Fiercely Independent Jewish Woman) in theirlives with a brief tribute.

2012: Israelicellist Yoed Nir is scheduled to perform at The Apollo Theatre in Manchester,UK

2012: 36thAnniversary of the Raid on Entebbe, a moment of great pride for Jews and allwho value the best in Western Civilization. Of course, we will neverforget that this gift was paid for with Jewish blood – in this case the life ofYonatan Netanyahu. If a person’s name defines them, then this is justsuch a case since the brave Israeli bears the name of the noblest of allbiblical characters – the son of Saul and comrade of David.

2012: TodayKadima party chairman Shaul Mofaz asserted that the implementation of thePlesner Report is a condition for his party staying in the government."The ball is in Prime Minister [Binyamin Netanyahu's] hands and he has amatter of days," Mofaz added, declaring that "the Plesner plan is theonly plan."

2012: YigalAmir, assassin of late Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, is set to leave solitaryconfinement in the coming days, the Prisons Service confirmed today. Amir hasspent 17 years in solitary detention, in line with repeated court extensions ofhis prison terms.

2013: Americansuperstar Alicia Keys, one of the leading musical artists of the last 10 years,is scheduled to arrive in Israel for the first time today.” (As reported byDavid Brinn)

2013:Independence Day – Even before the “shot heard around the world” was fired Jewswere active in the military units that would eventually fight theBritish. In 1769, Captain Richard Lushington formed a volunteer companyat Charleston, SC “composed chiefly of Hebrews. They would later bereferred to as “the Jews company” and include Marks Lazarus, Emanuel Abrahams,Jacob Moses Joseph Solomon and Abraham Spidel among its members. Among otherswho served on the battlefield were Mordecai Sheftall of Georgia who was twicecaptured by the British; Francis Salvador of South Carolina who was the firstJewish soldier to die during the war; Colonel Isaac Franks, aide de camp toGeneral Washington, Major Benjamin Moses who served on the staffs of GeorgeWashington and the Marquis de Lafayette; Colonel David S. Franks the loyalpatriot who served as aid de camp to Benedict Arnold; Philip Moses Russell“whom Washington commended for his assiduous attentions to the sick andwounded: and Colonel Jacob De La Motta. While we all know about thecontribution of Haym Solomon who bankrupted himself to provide funds for theRevolution we should also take note of Benjamin Levy and Benjamin Jacobs ofPhiladelphia and Samuel Lyon of New York who signed Bills of Credit for the ContinentalCongress for which they were never reimbursed. This list is not complete, butit should give a sense of the small Jewish community’s support for theRevolutionary cause. The most important contribution made by the Jews wasintellectual and spiritual. From portraying King George as modern day Pharaohand themselves as Israelites escaping bondage, to the inscription on theLiberty Bell to the concept that All Men Are Created Equal, the Patriots drewfrom the well of Jewish tradition and Jewish books.

2014: The U.S.Embassy in Israel is scheduled to host a July 4th Celebrationstarting at 5:45.

2014: Somecelebrate Independence Day, while others remember the Battle of the Horns ofHittin. If you do not understand their impact on today’s world then toparaphrase Burke and Santayana, those who do not know and learn from historyare up the creek without a paddle. "

2015: TheEden-Tamir Music Center is scheduled to host “Bach and Mozart with a touch ofthe Present”

2015(17thof Tammuz, 5775): Parsha Balak; Fast of Tammuz not observed because it isShabbat.

2015(17thof Tammuz, 5775): Ninety-two-year-old Charles Winick, a controversial professorof anthropology and sociology passed away today.

2015(17th of Tammuz): A “CalendarCoincidence” makes this a special Independence Day. In 1776, Independence Daywas observed on July 4 which was the 17th of Tammuz on the Jewishcalendar. In a rare calendarconvergence, in 2015 we will celebrate Independence Day on July 4 which is alsothe 17th of Tammuz. Inanother Jewish connection to the Revolution, the Haftarah for July 4th comesfrom Micah who wrote “They shall sit every man under his vine and under hisfig-tree; And none shall make them afraid.” later, in 1790, President GeorgeWashington wrote to the Jews of Newport, Rhode Island, in part to reassure theJews of their acceptance in the new republic.Echoing the words of the Jewish prophet he wrote: “May the children of the stock of Abraham whodwell in this land continue to merit and enjoy the good will of the otherinhabitants - while everyone shall sit in safety under his own vine and figtree and there shall be none to make him afraid.” Whether he meant to or not,Washington was telling the Jewish population that the messianic vision of peaceand justice could be realized in the United States of America under its newlyadopted constitutional form of government.

2016(28th of Sivan, 5776): FormerCongressman and federal judge Abner Mikva passed away today at the age of 90.

2016: Prime Minister Netanyahu is schedule toparticipate in a ceremony at Entebbe marking the 40th anniversary ofOperation Thunderbolt, the famous recuse mission which claimed the life of hisbrother Yoni.

2016: In a fitting tribute to the memory ofElie Weisel who passed away two days ago, Independence Day provides a chance todiscover “more about the role of American soldiers in the liberation of theconcentrations and the mission of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museumin keeping “this history alive.

2017: 830th Anniversary of theBattle of the Horns of Hittin

2017: Scheduled observance of Independence Daycould include a visit to one or more these landmarks

2017: Today, Narendra Modi is scheduled toarrive in Jerusalem for the “first-ever visit by an Indian Prime Minister”which is a sign of the deepening relationship between two countries who gainedtheir independence from British rule after WW II.

2017: In Israel, the Labor Party is scheduledto hold the first round of elections that would lead to choosing a new leader.

2017: “A committee of the United NationsEducation, Science and Culture Organization (UNESCO) convened in Krakow todaywhere it approved the wording of a proposed resolution denying that Israel isthe sovereign power over Jerusalem and condemning it for conductingarcheological excavations in the Old City."

2017: In Philadelphia, the National Museum ofAmerican Jewish History is scheduled to host a special Independence Day programincluding talking “with a costumed impersonator portraying a young Jewish womanwho came to Philadelphia in 1913.”

2017: The Maccabiah Games opened in Israeltoday.

2018: “Batsheva– The Young Ensemble is scheduled to perform Ohad Naharin's BessieAward-winning dance, Naharin's Virus, inspired by the great Austrian writerPeter Handke's play” at Jacobs Pillow today for the first time.

2018: 155thanniversary of the Confederate surrender to Union forces under the command ofU.S. Grant who authored the brilliant campaign that brought about the victoryand who was the first President to attend synagogue services and make acontribution to Adas Israel. (For more about Grant and the Jewish people seethe writing s of Jonathan Sarna.

2018: Based on a list previouslypublished by JTA, Independence Day would be a good day to “celebrate thehistory of the Jewish people” in the United States by visiting the Lower EastSide Tenement; Touro Synagogue in Newport, RI; Temple Beth Sholom in ElkinsPark, PA; Gomez Mill House, Newburgh, NY; Beth Jacob Cemetery, Galveston, TX;Canter’s Deli in Los Angeles; Congregation Mikveh Israel in Philadelphia; BobDylan’s childhood home, Hibbing, MN; and Congregation Sherith Israel in SanFrancisco

2019: Aviva Kempner’s “The SpyBehind Home Plate” which tells the tale of Moe Berg is scheduled to open inHudson, NY.

2019: Gregory Michenaud’s “photoof Orthodox Jewish pilgrims praying at the tomb of a Chassic rabbi in Poland”is among the finalist for “the 2019 British Journal of Photography’s Open WallsCompetition” the winner of which is scheduled “to be announced” today “at aceremony in a 17th century mansion and gallery in the French town ofArles.”

2019: In London, JW3 is scheduledto host a special preview screening of “Never Look Away,” “an intergenerationaltale of love, sorrow, art and politics spanning three decades of 20th centuryGerman history, from Nazism through much of the Cold War.”

2019(1st of Tammuz,5779): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz;

2020: The Eden Tamar Music Centeris scheduled to host “Flute Sounds in Ein Kerem” with “Noam Buchman andFriend.”

2020: In New Orleans, TouroSynagogue is scheduled to host via Zoom a community wide lay-led Torah Studysession

2020: Esther, Lady Gilbert, thewidow historian Sir Martin Gilbert, the official biographer of WinstonChurchill will join the rest of theAnglo-Jewish community innnnn celebrating Shabbat while looking to see if todayis Independence Day in the UK when “key sectors of the economy includingtourism and hospitality are scheduled to reopen for the first time since March.

2020: In New Orleans, via livestream Temple Sinai is scheduled to host Summer Union Shabbat keeping alive along time tradition of the Reform community where all of the congregationscombine for one Shabbat service despite the reality of the Pandemic.

2020(12th of Tammuz):On the Jewish calendar, yahrzeit for the massacred Jews of Wiener Neustadt,Austria in 5058/1298 (As reported by Abraham P Bloch)

2020: For Jews celebration of adouble simcha – Shabbat and Independence Day

2020(12th of Tammuz,5780): Parashat Chukat and Balak;

2021: The New York Timesfeatures reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest toJewish readers including From Sarah to Sydney: The Woman BehindAll-of-a-Kind Family by June Cummins with Alexandra Dunietz

2021: Following yet anotherattack on Shabbat of incendiary balloons, Israelis brace for more such terrorattacks from Hamas.

2021: In Israel, “Health Ministryofficials are scheduled to meet today to “consider offering third doses of thePfizer vaccine to individuals with weakened immune system.”

2021: As Americans celebrateIndependence, Jews can take pride in their active support of the patriot cause.Besides the famous Hyam Solomon, “there were hundreds of Jewish soldiers andsailors who fought in the Revolution and patriots who supported it. There wasPhillip Russell, a surgeon at Valley Forge; Col. David Franks an aide to GeorgeWashington; a “Jew Company, " which fought in South Carolina; Moses Myers,who fought in Virginia; the Sheftall family, which fought and were captured inSavannah. In Manhattan's Chatham Square cemetery, 22 Revolutionary Jewishsoldiers lie. Many had sacrificed their lives for their new country. Just likethe approximately 500 Americans who were killed or wounded during the threeBritish assaults at Bunker Hill in 1775. (New evidence has surfaced that aJewish soldier, Abraham Solomon, participated in the Battle of Bunker Hill as amember of Colonel John Glover's 21st Regiment from Gloucester.)”

2021: The London School of JewishStudies is scheduled to host “The Jews of Ancient Tour,” a virtual event withDr. Lindsey Taylor-Guthartz.

2022: Grammy-winning U.S. rapper50 Cent is scheduled to arrive in Israel for a single show at Tel Aviv's MenoraMivtachim Arena today as part of his with ticket prices starting at NIS 349.(As reported by Ron Boker)

2022: Rachel Levin, the world’sbest granddaughter is scheduled to march in today’s Bexley Parade for theFourth of July which members of Congregation Tifereth Israel can which from thehome of Rabbi Skolnik whose home is along the parade route.

2022: The London School of JewishStudies is scheduled host Rabbi Michael Harris as presents the first lecture inthe series on “A Tale of Two Trucks: The Problem of Moral Luck.

2022: The Pardes Learning Seminarwhich brings together community leaders, professionals and lifelong learners,who wish to study classical Jewish sources either online or within thelandscape of Israel and this year will focus on the topics of Shabbat andShmittah is scheduled to continue for a second day in Jerusalem.

2022: As Israelis celebrate thetriumph over terrorism known as the Raid on Entebbe, based on previously published informationthey are bracing for another wave of terrorism tied to the upcoming visit ofPresident Biden.

2023: In the United Statescelebration of Independence Day

2023: Based on previouslypublished reports, the IDF plans more raids as the Jenin offensive continues.

2023: Even though many places areclosed today due to Independence Day, the Museum at Eldridge Street isscheduled to be open to visitors.

2024: Parliamentary elections,where anti-Semitism has become an issued are scheduled to be held today in theUnited Kingdom.

2024: The National Library ofIsrael is scheduled to host a concert with Barry Sakharof, “one of Israel’sbest rock musicians.”

2024: In Philadelphia, theWeitzman Museum is scheduled to a host an “indoor parade watch party, makecrafts, enjoy sensory-friendly play with Adoughma, sing and dance with KhalilMunir and Two of a Kind.

2024: Rabbi Dr. Meir Soloveichik isscheduled to present a podcast on how Jewish ideas and the Hebrew Bibleinspired the Founding Fathers and America's fight for independence

2024: The Lillian and AlbertSmall Capital Jewish Museum is scheduled to host an Independence Day SummerParty Family Day Program

2024: As July 4th beginsin Israel, an unprecedented wave of anti-Semitism that has included Hamas supporterscalling for Zionist passengers on a New York subway to raise their hands,sweeps the United States and the Hamas held hostages begin day 272 incaptivity. (Editor’s note: thissituation is too fluid for this blog to cover so we are just providing asnapshot as of the posting at midnight Israeli time.)

This Day, July 4, In Jewish History by Mitchell A and Deb Levin Z’L – All #ourCOG News (2024)


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